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Ferropericlase

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Ferropericlase or magnesiowüstite is a magnesium oxide with the chemical formula (Mg,Fe)O that is interpreted to be one of the main constituents of the Earth's lower mantle together with silicate perovskite , a magnesium/iron silicate. Ferropericlase has been found as inclusions in a few natural diamonds. An unusually high iron content in one suite of diamonds has been associated with an origin from the lowermost mantle. Discrete ultralow-velocity zones in the deepest parts of the mantle, near the Earth's core, are thought to be blobs of ferropericlase, as seismic waves are significantly slowed as they pass through them, and ferropericlase is known to have this effect at the high pressures and temperatures found deep within the Earth's mantle. In May 2018, ferropericlase was shown to be anisotropic in specific ways in the high pressures of the lower mantle, and these anisotropies may help seismologists and geologists to confirm whether those ultra-low velocity zones are indeed ferropericlase, by passing seismic waves through them from various different directions and observing the exact amount of change in the velocity of those waves.

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