Painite is a very rare borate mineral. It was first found in Myanmar and gem dealer Arthur C.D. Pain who misidentified it as ruby , until it was discovered as a new gemstone in the 1950s. When it was confirmed as a new mineral species, the mineral was named after him. Due to its rarity, painite can cost in the range of between US$50,000 to $60,000 per carat.
The chemical makeup of painite contains calcium , zirconium (CaZrAl9O15(BO3)). The mineral also contains trace amounts of chromium, which are responsible for Painite's typically orange-red to brownish-red color,. The mineral's rarity is due to the fact that zirconium and boron rarely interact with each other in nature. The crystals are naturally hexagonal in shape, and, until late 2004, only two had been cut into faceted gemstones.