Palladium is a chemical element with the symbol 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas , which was itself named after the epithet, acquired by her when she slew Pallas , rhodium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). They have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them.
More than half the supply of palladium and its congener platinum is used in catalytic converters , which convert as much as 90% of the harmful gases in automobile exhaust (hydrocarbons, and nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide). Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry , hydrogen purification , chemical applications, groundwater treatment , and jewelry. Palladium is a key component of fuel cells , which react hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water.
Ore of palladium and other PGMs are rare. The most extensive deposits have been found in the norite belt of the Bushveld Igneous Complex covering the Transvaal Basin in South Africa, the Stillwater Complex, United States; the Sudbury Basin and Thunder Bay District, Canada, and the Norilsk Complex is also a source, mostly from scrapped catalytic converters. The numerous applications and limited supply sources result in considerable investment interest.