Rutherfordine is a mineral containing almost pure uranyl carbonate O3). It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in translucent lathlike, elongated, commonly radiating in fibrous, and in pulverulent, earthy to very fine-grained dense masses. It has a specific gravity of 5.7 and exhibits two directions of cleavage. It appears as brownish, brownish yellow, white, light brown orange, or light yellow fluorescent encrustations. It is also known as diderichite.
It was first described in 1906 for an occurrence in the Morogoro Region. It was named for Ernest Rutherford. It has been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo of Australia
It occurs as a secondary mineral as a weathering product of uraninite. In addition to uraninite it occurs associated with the rare minerals becquerelite , schoepite, boltwoodite, billietite, fourmarierite and is the only known mineral that contains only uranyl and carbonate.