Sapphire is a precious gemstone , a variety of the mineral corundum (α-Al 3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, or magnesium. It is typically blue, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; "parti sapphires" show two or more colors. Red corundum stones also occur but are called rubies Pink colored corundum may be classified either as ruby or sapphire depending on locale. Commonly, natural sapphires are cut and polished into gemstones and worn in jewelry. They also may be created synthetically in laboratories for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 9.5) – sapphires are also used in some non-ornamental applications, such as infrared components, high-durability windows crystals and movement bearings, and very thin electronic wafers , which are used as the insulating of special-purpose solid-state electronics such as integrated circuits and GaN.
Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary occurs after 65 years.