Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water.
Titanium was discovered in Cornwall , Great Britain in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene
Titanium can be alloyed , vanadium , among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines , missiles), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture, orthopedic implants , dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants , sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones
The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels There are two allotropic and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group , they differ in many chemical and physical properties.